Ignou Books , Notes , Study Material , Solved Papers





(1) Distinguish between a ductile and a brittle material. Give examples of ductile and brittle materials.

(2) Describe the procedure for finding Rockwell hardness.

(3) Describe the process of steel making with direct arc electric furnace.

(4)What are the distinguish features of eutectoid, hypo-eutectoid and hyper eutectoid steels ?

(5) What is stainless steel ? Mention those properties which distinguish stainless steel from plain carbon steel

(6) Define thermal conductivity. Give units of thermal conductivity. Explain mechanism of thermal conduction through materials.

(7) Define refractoriness. List at least five refractory materials. Describe the properties of refractory materials.

(8) What is a glass ? What are different types of glasses ? What are tailor made glass properties ?

(9) Define the term lubricant and describe the functions of lubricants.

(10) Define the term coating. What are the purposes of coatings ? Explain.


(1) Define a steam turbine and state its fields of application
(2) State the methods of increasing the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle.

(3) State the First Law of Thermodynamics and prove that for a non-flow process, it leads to the energy equation Q = AU + W

(4) Define a steam condenser and state its fields of application.
(5) Explain briefly the zeroth law of Thermodynamics.

(6) Describe in brief the "bleeding of steam turbine".

(7) Derive an expression for heat loss in kJ/ m2-hr through a composite wall of layers without considering convective heat transfer co-efficients.

(8) Discuss the need for cooling towers and cooling ponds. How are cooling towers classified ?

(9) Enumerate the comparison between 'Fire-tube and Water-tube' boilers.

(10) Describe in brief the three modes of heat transfer. Which is the slowest of all?

(11) Briefly explain the ash handling disposal circuit of a Thermal Power Plant.

(12) What do you understand by the 'Clausius Statement of second law of Thermodynamics' ?

(13) Describe in brief the various non-conventional energy sources.

(14) What are the different types of solar water heating systems ?


(1) Write and explain various surface and ground water sources.

(2) List various factors which are considered before taking a decision on design period of water supply schemes.

(3)List and explain in brief various bacteriological tests conducted for the estimation of micro-biological quality of water.

(4)List and explain in brief the water treatment processes covered under pre- treatment.

(5)Differentiate between coagulation and flocculation

(6)With the help of sketches, illustrate various types of layout used in water distribution system.

(7)List various appurtenances used in house water supply.

(8)What are the basic components of sanitary sewer system ?

(9) Distinguish between sanitary sewer and storm drainage system.

(10)What are different units of sludge treatment ? Draw a flow diagram of it.Also discuss sludge thickening, sludge stabilization and sludge dewatering.

(11)Name various ways of final disposal of effluent of sewage treatment plant.

(12)Classify wells according to water flow conditions. Explain any one.

(13) Classify wells according to method of Constructions. Explain tube well with neat sketch.

(14) With the help of a neat sketch, describe the working of a slow sand filter. Also discuss its relative advantages and disadvantages over rapid sand filters.

(15)List various types of pipes and pipe joints which are used for water supply system. Describe with the help of neat sketch, two types of joints.

(16)What do you understand by corrosion in pipes ? What are the reasons of corrosion? What are the remedial methods ?

(17)Discuss the working principle of activated sludge process. Draw a flow diagram in schematic form of waste water treatment plant that includes activated sludge process.

(18)With the help of a flow diagram describe the working of Aerobic Sludge Digester. Also discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of aerobic and anaerobic sludge digestion process.

(19) Define average per capita demand of water and discuss the factors affecting it

(20) How you will select source of water for water supply schemes ? Discuss

(21) What do you understand by the term, "Water Borne Disease" ? Name one water borne disease under each category of bacterial viral and protozoa origin.

(22)How should water sample be collected for laboratory examinations ? Explain in brief

(23)What is water softening ? Explain any three methods of water softening

(24)What are the basic components of sanitary sewer system ?

(25)Distinguish between sanitary sewer and storm drainage system.

(26) What do you understand by terms Sludge Bulking and F/M ratio ? Dlscuss the importance with reference to wastewater treatment.





 (1)  Differentiate between end bearing pile and friction pile.


 (2)  Explain pile driving.


(3)   Describe the various tests to be carried out to ascertain the quality of bricks.


(4)   Enlist types of stone masonry and explain any two.


(5)  Describe pre-construction anti-termite treatment.


(6)  Enlist different methods of damp proofing. Describe any two.


(7)  Enlist types of lintels and explain any two.


(8) What is meant by scaffolding ? Enlist types of scaffolding and explain any  two.


(9)  Enlist the factors that need to be considered in selection of flooring for ground floor.


(10)  Discuss jack arch floors.


(11)  Draw the labelled sketches of rolling and collapsible doors.


(12) Discuss the points to be considered while making provisions for windows in a  room.


(13)  Describe the various causes for settlement of foundations.


(14)  What do you mean by pile foundations ? Briefly discuss its various types.


(15)  Describe briefly the different systems of building structures.


(16)  What is a bond stone and what is its purpose ? At what intervals would you provide bond stones in random rubble masonrv ?


(17) Discuss the various precautions required to be taken to prevent dampness in   buildings.


(18) Explain how post construction anti-termite treatment is carried out in buildings.


(19) Explain the details of an RCC lintel having chajja projection by means of a neat   sketch.


(20)  Explain the various functions served by an Arch.


(21)  Discuss the various factors affecting the selection of upper floors.



(22) Describe the construction details of cement concrete flooring.


(23) Discuss the commonly used sizes of doors in various types of buildings.


(24) Describe the various types of glass used in the construction of doors and windows.


(25) Explain the design of a wall footing.


(26)  Discuss the importance of site investigations.


(27) Describe the different functions served by cavity wall in a building.


(28) Discuss the impotance of good workmanship and quality control in masonry construcrion.


(29) Discuss the relative merits of lintels over the arches.


(30) What do you understand by scaffolding mention its various components.



1.Classify I. C. engines and sketch two types based on cylinder arrangement

2.Name any eight engine components describe head.

3.A single cylinder 4 stroke engine has 14 stroke = cylinder diameter = 80 mm. The engine running at 500 rpm produces a torque of 60 Nm at the crankshaft. The indicated mean effective pressure is 2.1 N/mm2. What is the mechanical efficiency of the engine ? Also find friction power.

4.Sketch an electronic ignition system for an I. C. engine and bring out differences with battery ignition system.

5.Explain why cooling is needed in an engine and what happens if engine is over cooled.

6.Name modes of heat transfer and correlate them with engine parts.

7.What is constrained motion. Sketch system with constrained motion and incompletely constrained motion. 

8.Classify kinematic pairs according to relative motion and type of contact:

9.What are different types of power transmission systems and what are their
characteristics ?

10. Draw the diagram of a four-stroke SI engine showing various components

11. A single cylinder four-stroke diesel engine 7 has a bore of L50 mm and a stroke of
200 mm. when engine runs at 400 rpm., it develops 10 kW. The area of the indicator diagram is 7.25 cm and its maximum length is 6.125 cm. The spring constant is 8 bar /cm. Determine :
a) The mean effective pressure
b) The indicated power, and
c) The mechanical efficiency of the engine

12. Explain the working principle of a simple carburator with a neat diagram

13. What are the functional requirements of an injection system used in compression
ignition engines ? Explain

14. State the objectives of super charging an engine. Explain the effect of super charging on engine performance.
15. Compare the relative merits and demerits of battery and magneto ignition system

16. State the main functions of a spark plug. Draw a neat sketch of a spark plug, and
label its components

17. With a neat diagram, explain briefly the dry sump lubrication system.

18. Discuss the relative merits of air cooling and water cooling of internal cumbustion


1 Answer any two of the following :
(a) List some applications of air conditioning .
(b) With a simple sketch explain the working of a vapour compression refrigeration system.
(c) Explain briefly some applications for reciprocating and centrifugal compressors.

2 Answer any two of the following :
(a) What is the significance of the Carnot refrigerator ?
What are the practical difficulties in devising a Carnot refrigerator ?
(b) What is a Cascade Refrigeration System ? Compare this system with multistorage compression and evaporation

3 What is the working substance in air conditioning? Would you call it a pure substance ? How do you calculate its molecular mass ?

4 Answer any two of the following:
(a) Define
(i) Dew point temperature
(ii) Dry bulb temperature
(iii) Wet bulb temperature
(b) What do you understund by marine relrigeration and how is it different from truck refrigeration ?
(c) It is proposed to use a reversed Carnot engine as a refrigerator. The unit consumes
10 kW power. If the COP is 3.5, determine the refrigeration capacity of the unit.

5 Answer any two of the following::
(a) What are the important Factors Which govern the choice of a r?frigerant?
(b) How do tho following two.factors inflicnco the performance of a vapour-compressioni refngeration system?
(1) Suction vapour- superheat
(2) Liquid subcooling

6 What are the difierent types of compressors ued in industry ? write in short working system of any one type of compressor?

7 Define refrigerant. State desirable chemical propeeties of a good refrigetant?

8 What are the differences between:
(i) Refrigertion and Heat pump system
(ii) Natural convection condenser and Forced air circulation condenser
(iii) Primary and secondary refrigerants

9 Write in brief on Comfort Air-conditioning?

10 What do you understand by martine refrigeration and how is it different from truck refrigeration?

11 What are the parameters required to be controlled for air conditioning ?

12 How is summer air conditioning different from winter air conditioning ?

13 What is the function of condenser in refrigeration system ? Write short notes on air cooled condenser.

14 Define primary refrigerant. State thermodynamic properties of a good refrigerant?

15 What are the factors contributing to food spoilage ?

16 What are the different types of refrigeration systems used for refrigeration trucks and trailers ?

17 How do the parts of an ammonia absorption system compare with those of a vapourcompression system ?

18 What is ton of refrigeration ? List some applications of air conditioning.

19 What do you understand by transport refrigeration ? What types of refrigeration systems are used for transport refrigeration ? Explain with examples.

20 What are the various factors which are contributing to food spoilage ? List the
causes of food spoilage.

21 What is refrigerating effect ? How refrigeration helps in the preservation of
food products ?

22 What are the temperature and humidity conditions required for the comfort air
conditioning ? Explain.

23 What is condenser ? What are the various types of condensers ? Explain working principle of water cooled condenser.

24 What is a refrigerant ? List some common refrigerants. Also describe the various desirable properties of Refrigerants.

25 What is a ceased refrigeration system ? Compare this system with multistage compression and evaporation systems.

26 What are the conditions for Highest COP. Explain the effects on P-h diagram?
27 What are different types of condensers used in refrigeration ? Explain the working of Evaporative condenser.

28 What are the different types of Evaporators ? Explain in short any one type of Evaporator.

29 Discuss the desirable thermodynamic, chemical and physical properties of

30 What are different steps in food preservation ?

31 Describe various types of Freezers.?